The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Phases

Chronologically, Kuhn distinguishes between various phases.[4]

Phase 1- It exists only once and is the pre-paradigm phase, in which there is no consensus on any particular theory, though the research being carried out can be considered scientific in nature. This phase is characterized by several incompatible and incomplete theories. If the actors in the pre-paradigm community eventually gravitate to one of these conceptual frameworks and ultimately to a widespread consensus on the appropriate choice of methods, terminology and on the kinds of experiment that are likely to contribute to increased insights.

Phase 2- Normal Science, begins, in which puzzles are solved within the context of the dominant paradigm. As long as there is consensus within the discipline, normal science continues. Over time, progress in normal science may reveal anomalies, facts that are difficult to explain within the context of the existing paradigm. While usually these anomalies are resolved, in some cases they may accumulate to the point where normal science becomes difficult and where weaknesses in the old paradigm are revealed.

Phase 3- This phase is a crisis. Crises are often resolved within the context of normal science. However, after significant efforts of normal science within a paradigm fail, science may enter the next phase.

Phase 4- Scientific revolution is the phase in which the underlying assumptions of the field are reexamined and a new paradigm is established.

Phase 5- Post-Revolution, the new paradigm’s dominance is established and so scientists return to normal science, solving puzzles within the new paradigm. [4]

A science may go through these cycles repeatedly, though Kuhn notes that it is a good thing for science that such shifts do not occur often or easily.

THE STREAMLINING ADAPTATION

Resistance of Medium at Successful Niche Velocity equals the Coefficient of Streamlining or Damlining by Adaptation

Resistance of Medium  (Flow Characteristics  of fluid impacting the organism at Succesful Niche Velocity) including such factors as density, viscosity, and turbulence)

Succesful Niche Velocity is the needed velocity at various stages of the organisms activity and life cycle

Streamlining (construction or manipulation of a body that increases velocity against a fluid force)

Damlining (construction or manipulation of a body that reduces velocity against a fluid force)

Human Thinkers Replaced by Robots

Alternate title: computer system

View All (60)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
• Introduction
• Computing basics
• History of computing
Computer, device for processing, storing, and displaying information.
Computer once meant a person who did computations, but now the term almost universally refers to automated electronic machinery. The first section of this article focuses on modern digital electronic computers and their design, constituent parts, and applications. The second section covers the history of computing. For details on computer architecture, software, and theory, seecomputer science.
Computing basics
The first computers were used primarily for numerical calculations. However, as any information can be numerically encoded, people soon realized that computers are capable of general-purpose information processing. Their capacity to handle … (100 of 32,720 words)

PHYSICS OF BIRD FLIGHT

Trumpeter Swans

Trumpeter Swans
(Courtesy NEBRASKAland Magazine/NGPC)

GLIDING

Some birds use their wings to glide through the air. They seem to drift along effortlessly.

To do this, the bird relies on simple physics. The bird’s wing is not entirely flat – it’s actually curved. As air moves over the top of the wing, the air has a longer distance to go than the air moving under the wing. But the same amount of air is moving both over and under the wing.

The result is that the air moving over the top of the wing produces less pressure on the wing than the air moving under the wing. This causes the wing to be pushed up from below and pulled up from above. The result: the bird is lifted into the air! By tilting its wings forward or backward, a bird can change its speed while gliding.